What is an EFP? Meaning explained | The Sun
WARFARE has changed significantly over the past 100 years, including the design of explosives.
First discovered in the 1930s, EFPs have been deployed for almost 90 years. But how do they work and where have they been used?
What does EFP mean?
An EFP is an explosively formed penetrator, also known as an explosively formed projectile.
Other definitions for the device include a self-forging warhead and a self-charging fragment.
The cylindrical shape of the projectile is designed to penetrate armour effectively.
Accounts from soldiers suggest they are usually found in a copper or steel bowl that is packed with several pounds of explosives.
How does an EFP work?
When the explosives are detonated, it converts the metal into an aerodynamic projectile. capable of piercing thick materials, according to Wired.
The technology is closely related to the shaped charge or a HEAT warhead (Hight Explosive Anti Tank).
EFP device reportedly have the punch of heavy artillery, but can scatter contents without causing an explosion.
EFPs provide an alternative means of disrupting an explosive device and can be fired from safe distance of just ten meters away.
However, the improvised explosive device can be extremely dangerous and destructive.
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When have EFPs been used?
EFP’s were first weaponised during the Second World War after being produced after being developed as developed as oil well perforators by American oil companies in the 1930s.
Early EFPs were unstable and could not be aimed accurately over any real distance, but improved versions were developed to stabilise them.
New designs had to be tested by a lengthy process of trial and error.
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The devices have since been adopted as warheads in several warfare systems. including the US army’s CBU-97 and multiple anti-tank missiles.
EFPs have also been used for demolition and mining and most importantly for disarming terrorist bombs and unexploded mines.
In Iraq and Afghanistan, approximately 50-67% of American troops were either killed or injured by EFPs.
And between 2005 and 2011, EFPs injured nearly 900 US troops and killed at least 196, according to The Seattle Times.
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